I am required by the Police Act 1993 to report annually to the Department of Home Affairs. My last two annual reports each ran to over 30,000 words and, whilst I have derived some satisfaction from being able to expound at length on matters that are important to the Constabulary and to me as Chief Constable, I have become convinced that the impact of such lengthy and dense documents has declined. The new, shorter report that follows is intended to highlight important issues, summarise key elements of the Isle of Man Constabulary’s performance and direct the reader to detailed charts and tables.
The Constabulary has not reduced its data collection, nor has it lost focus on the importance of maintaining low levels of crime. The comprehensive charts that have long been published are still being collated, as they form an important source of management information. Also include within the data is a chart showing performance against the annual policing plan, which is also a requirement of the Police Act 1993.
In the pages that follow I have highlighted some critical aspects of the Constabulary’s performance, either by way of commentary, or through simple graphics, which explain what the Constabulary and its officers have done in the past twelve months.
There has long been a tendency to judge the effectiveness of the Constabulary on the overall level of recorded crime. This approach is understandable but flawed. Our data shows that crime tends to amount to only about a quarter of our operational activity and, whereas low levels of recorded crime are generally a good thing, I am keen to see some types of crime actually increase. For example, more reports of domestic violence tend to suggest that victims have greater confidence in the police and increases in drugs seizures are usually a sign of increased police activity, which is often a sign of police effectiveness.
In general terms the 2017-18 year was one where there was an underlying growth in demand: crime was slightly up for the third successive year; drugs seizures were significantly up; offences committed by young people rose quickly; the Constabulary at times struggled to deal with the demands caused by an increase in reporting of non-recent sexual offences and our roads enforcement activity increased quite considerably.
On the positive side, road traffic collisions continued to reduce (there has been a 6% reduction in fatal and serious collisions when compared with the three year average); see the detailed analysis of collision data commissioned by the Department of Infrastructure; domestic burglaries were at the third lowest level since the 1970s; there was a welcome reduction in the number of mental health incidents dealt with by the police; formal complaints against the police were extremely low at just five in number; and the Isle of Man became even safer when compared to England and Wales, where crime appears to be growing at a fast rate.
It is not the purpose of this report to make the case for extra resources, but the Constabulary’s funding has now reached the stage where the level and type of policing that the public has long enjoyed are in imminent danger. In the 2018-19 year I will be reviewing the Constabulary’s operating model to ensure that we can meet the challenges of the 21st century, where just about every single investigation has a technological element, where organised crime groups from the United Kingdom are increasingly targeting the Island with dangerous drugs and where our efforts in dealing with an almost exponential increase in reported financial crime cases are coming under especially rigorous international scrutiny. To put it bluntly, the Constabulary’s budget is inadequate to allow it to provide a police service that will properly protect our quality of life for the short to medium term.
Everything begins and ends in a neighbourhood and we have rightly won accolades over the years for the way that officers have successfully operated from local police stations. Their efforts and the work that they do with partners make this place safe. It is those efforts that ensure that 98% of people feel safe at home at night; it is those efforts that make the Constabulary so trusted by the public and it those efforts that attract people to visit the Island or to relocate their businesses or their families to here. Yet increasing demand means that neighbourhood policing teams are struggling to deliver proper and effective neighbourhood policing, which in turn is allowing anti-social behaviour and offending by young people to increase. The upturn in demand and the increases in offending are not yet really large, but there is danger that they will become so unless action is taken and such action is becoming harder to accomplish as public service budgets continue to decline.
The review of the Constabulary’s operating model will be a key event and I will be faced with major choices. It is difficult to see any how neighbourhood policing in its current format will be sustained. This is not a hollow threat. The stage has been reached when choices are being made – and being made frequently – about whether to have officers patrol our towns and villages, or whether we should do more for victims of sexual abuse, or indeed whether we can afford to target those who are importing and selling Class A drugs, such as heroin and cocaine.
Neighbourhood policing is critically important to the social well-being of this island. Without it, our quality of life – which remains admirably good – will decline. If this happens, then those most at risk will be those who are already the most vulnerable in our society: those on benefits, those in poverty, those who have disabilities and those who live in areas where crime levels are higher than elsewhere. Even a passing glance at the United Kingdom shows that significant reductions in neighbourhood policing bring dangerous consequences.
So important is local delivery of services that I would urge the government to do all that it can to bring together professionals at a local level, so that multi-disciplinary teams can target those most in need, which will include those most in need of support, such as victims of domestic abuse, as well as targeting those who act in an anti-social or criminal way. Early intervention, help and support delivered locally and complemented by appropriate enforcement action will be the key to the future safety of the community. Furthermore, the focus of the public service as a whole must be on reducing demand. I do not believe that we have a choice in this. How we have operated has made us successful, but what we have done to achieve this will not necessarily guarantee us success in the future.
Work undertaken in the United States of America in the mid-1990s and followed up in recent years by the organisation Kaiser Permanente and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention show that an approach of the kind that I have mentioned is not only important but necessary. Where children suffer some an adverse experience, such as witnessing domestic abuse, there is an alarming and measurable increase in the risks of them suffering poor mental and physical health, in becoming obese, in using drugs, in falling victim to crime and in them committing crime. Joined up local services targeting those most at risk is the best (and perhaps only) way that we can maintain our quality of life and, at the same time, ensure that those most at risk are both targeted and supported. This is the future of neighbourhood policing, but such an approach will require political leadership and a public acceptance that high quality, innovative services will cost money and look different.
I have made mention of similar approaches before, but I believe that action is needed now.
There were 106 extra offences during the year and, in simple terms, these comprised extra drugs offences, extra non-domestic burglary offences (which were linked to the drug trade), more domestic assaults and considerably more public order offences.
All of this said, crime remains very low and the rapid increases in crime that are being seen in the United Kingdom are not necessarily being mirrored here. There, the 2017 data shows that knife crime rose by 22%, firearms offences by 11%, thefts of and from motor-vehicles by 17% and robbery by 33%. The overall increase in crime there has been 11% . By way of contrast, there were no offences of robbery reported here in 2017-18! and, even with the rise in non-domestic burglary, property crime is comparatively very low indeed. A word of warning, though: offences involving the possession of prohibited articles and offensive weapons doubled during the year from 15 to 31.
Arrests rose by 2% during the year, in line with the overall growth in demand. However, the arrest of young people (those below the age of 18) went up by an alarming 22%. This is proof positive that our youth justice team, which was once highly effective and which was an exemplar for positive multi-agency working, is now failing. The decline began when resources were taken away from the team by one of our partners. Where there were once five specialist workers, who worked hard to prevent offending and reoffending by young people, there are now two. Even with an immediate injection of resources it would take some considerable time to restore the status quo ante, which saw young people being diverted from offending at the first possible opportunity.
Drunkenness offences increased slightly during the year, but they remain well below levels seen in the fairly recent past. See also, my address to the opening session of the triennial sessions of the Licensing Court.
A significant aspect of the crime data is the issue of cannabis possession. The number of such offences increased and equated to 10% of all recorded crime. Quite simply cannabis is ubiquitous. Its status is a matter for politicians, but I am encouraged by the beginning of a debate about its uses, abuses and the law.
Record amounts of drugs were seized during the year, with the total combined street prices for drugs seized falling in the range of £802,690 to £883, 868. This is almost three times the value seized as recently as 2015-16.
It is difficult to draw precise crime comparisons with all of the jurisdictions in the British Isles. Jersey and Guernsey, for example, are just about to use the United Kingdom’s national crime recording model for the first time, whereas the Constabulary has been adhering to it since 2001. All things considered the Island is still about the safest jurisdiction in the British Isles and the detection rate for crime is higher than anywhere else.
The modernisation of the Island’s financial crime structures and processes in the summer of 2016 continued to have a considerable impact on the Constabulary during the 2017-18 year. The work of the Financial Intelligence Unit and the creation of an asset recovery team within HM Attorney General’s Chambers combined to help produce a considerable increase in the demands faced by the Constabulary’s Economic Crime Unit (ECU).
During the year the Treasury took welcome steps to try to rationalise financial crime budgets, so that appropriate resources could be put in place and better financial management could be undertaken. Additionally, steps were taken to try to ensure that resource levels are appropriate to meet demand and the increasing challenges thrown up by international scrutiny. This work by Treasury and others will continue well into the 2018-19 year and beyond, but there cannot be any doubt that there is now proper political awareness of the marked imbalance that has long existed between growing financial crime demand and available resources.
Considerable operational activity, including the continuation of some complex, long-running investigations, meant that the year was extremely busy. At the same time, external scrutiny from the Moneyval body continued, with extensive working being undertaken in readiness for a plenary meeting of the organisation in July 2018. The impact of this scrutiny has been felt by the ECU, yet it has done much to highlight the excellent work that is routinely being undertaken by comparatively few people.
International scrutiny of our efforts to deal with our financial crime obligations are just one sign of a world where policing is increasingly being examined and scrutinised. I made three appearances during the year before the Tynwald social affairs policy select committee, twice in connection with mental health matters, and once concerning its investigation into abuse at the Knottfield children’s home. I also appeared at a public hearing of the public accounts committee and I had informal discussions with a select committee on whistleblowing and with the newly formed constitutional affairs and justice committee, as it begins to formulate its programme of work.
Scrutiny is a good thing, especially if it leads to action. A transcript of my evidence to the public accounts committee, which offers a lengthy explanation of the impact of reduced budgets on the policing of the Island.
My opening address to the Knottfield inquiry hearing. It makes for sad and sober reading. I am certain that some good will come from the inquiry: justice may not quite take the form that some survivors of the awful abuse at Knottfield may wish, but there in now no doubt that they are being believed and their courage is helping to improve the services that contemporary victims are receiving. Furthermore, that courage is also helping others who have been victims to come forward and put their trust in the police. The impact on police resources of the reporting of non-recent abuse has been considerable for the last three or so years and there is little prospect of this changing.
2018-19 is likely to see the creation of a sexual assault referral centre, which will bring together services for the benefit of those who have subject to sexual violence. This will be a major and much welcomed development.
Two or three paragraphs are not enough to do justice to the full range of work undertaken by or within the Constabulary or to pay proper tribute to the hard work and dedication of police officers, support staff and our voluntary workforce, including the excellent members of the Special Constabulary. Sometimes I fear that police officers are taken for granted. It is a privilege to lead so many talented and committed people.
During the year we balanced the recruitment of high quality local people, who joined as probationary Constables, with the recruitment of experienced and well-trained transferee officers from across England and Wales. This meant that we ended the year with all of our posts filled for the first time in a couple of years. We have recruited on a values basis for many years and this manifests itself in the continuing low level of formal complaints. Just five in a year is a considerable achievement.
Our efforts to maintain and improve our professional standards in terms of training and development proved increasingly challenging. The College of Policing now owns the intellectual property rights to all police training material and it is determined to impose a surcharge on the Crown Dependencies for accessing this material. This is neither right nor fair and efforts to obtain cost-effective access, which is critically important if we are to continue to thrive, will inevitably continue into the 2018-19 year.
There are worrying signs about the impact of rising demand and increasing officer workloads. Officer sickness rose by about a quarter during the year, the largest increase for several years. Most of the increase was long-term stress related absence. During the year the Constabulary began a significant programme of work designed to improve mental health within the workplace.
Work continued during the year on the Constabulary’s ambitious digital strategy. The installation of a new core system did not proceed to schedule and it will not go live until January 2019, but it is important to note that the delays were entirely outside the Constabulary’s control. The new system is key to the eventual transformation of policing using technology.
A sad event took place during the year: the closure of Castletown Police Station. The brilliant, iconic Baillie Scott building was no longer fit for purpose and the replacement station in the town’s civic centre is much more functional, albeit that it is unlikely ever to become loved. Nevertheless, I am very grateful to Castletown Town Commissioners, who are excellent local authority partners and good landlords.
There is much in the Constabulary that is excellent, but the challenges of constrained budgets, changing demand and new types of offending pose real threats. The Constabulary has not sought more resources for several years, following government policy. At your request I will be submitting business cases for growth for the 2019-20 year to address shortfalls in training and development budgets; to meet succession planning challenges; to allow us to maintain both neighbourhood policing and the policing of our roads; and to tackle serous and organised crime. Whether any or all of those cases succeed will be of fundamental importance to the planning of the Constabulary’s future, as work is already underway to create the 2019-24 strategic plan.